The relationship between Micro and Macro levels economics performance Essay

This essay example was written by “write my essay“request of one of Writemyessay.guru customers.

It can be stated that both micro as well as macroeconomics study problems relating to scarcity and choice. However, the basic difference is that while micro economics studies such problems at the level of individual economic unit, macroeconomics studies these problems at the level of an economy as a whole.

Strategic management studies increasingly introduce multilevel modeling to analyze the interaction between firm performance and (agglomerated) contexts (Beugelsdijk, 2007). Following social sciences, hierarchical random effects or multilevel modeling, which allows the micro level and macro level to be modeled simultaneously, is becoming an increasingly common practice in strategic management and organization studies. Similarities of macro relations to micro behavior are enhanced by uncertainty.

As a first step, the baseline micro model of employment hysteresis under certainty is described. As a second step, we deal with the aggregation approach under certainty. Third, we focus on the modification to our micro level analysis which become necessary by consideration of uncertainty. As a fourth step, we present a method to solve the problem of aggregation of hysteresis from micro to total economy employment under uncertainty.

The micro-macro level heterogeneity and interrelationships can be addressed adequately. One can distinguish micro-level and macro-level relationship between health and economic performance. Studies at the micro-level focus on the casual mechanisms through which health affects the economic behavior and performance of individuals and households. Studies at the macro-level analyze the statistical relationships between investments in health, heath status and economic development. (Szirmai & Szirmai, 2005)

The micro relationships between economic performance and attitudes redistribution function very differently from relationships at the macro level. For micro there is a striking and predictable linkage between social class and attitudes towards government spending. Economically secure citizens are much less supportive of the redistributive functions and more supportive of accelerated tax relief than citizens drawn from economically vulnerable locations in the society.

If the macro level followed the same logic as the micro level, we would expect that the aggregate perceptions of economic performance strengthen there will be more secure people and hence less support for active state redistribution. (Strain, Banting, Sharpe & St-Hilaire, 2003). Despite the focus in the empirical literature on the relationship between agglomeration economies and the regional growth as a macro-level phenomena, the underlying theory of agglomeration contains booth macro and micro- level propositions. At the macro level, this involves the use of panel regressions or time-series methods to test for the effect of State Business Relations on economic growth. At the micro level, the contributors assess the impact of State Business Relations on productivity growth at the industry and firm (micro) levels, using state-of-the-art econometric methods that address the endogeneity problem in standard productivity estimations.

In conclusion, macro-level empirical work has been concerned with how entrepreneurship influences economic measures of development, such as GDP, productivity, and employment. Very few studies have considered non-monetary or subjective measures. Most micro-level studies focus on the why and how of entrepreneurship, not its impact on development. Nevertheless, studies on productivity, innovativeness, and growth and female entrepreneurs provide insights on whether and how entrepreneurship matters for development.

References

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From Thesis Statement to Outline

Gifted, advanced and talented students learn to apply a thesis statement to create a detailed outline in this final article in the Process-Writing series.

In this article, students will learn the final steps in creating their custom-made thesis statements and discover how to fit everything together in an outline.

In this article, innovative brain-based ideas will be explored that can help bright, advanced or gifted and talented students gain some fresh perspectives by using higher-order thinking skills and abstract thinking on how to write in multiple styles and genres – including expository essays, narratives, creative, poetry, persuasive, literary analysis, cause and effect and many others.

Step Five: No-Fuss Thesis Statements…

Show the students how remarkably simple this next step is. By duplicating the following template, students can now “plug-in” the Items from their webs to create a preliminary thesis statement, which could be positioned near the end of their essays’ introductions:

“This paper will (choose one: explore, explain, discuss, demonstrate, review, etc.) HUB by examining ITEM 1, ITEM 2, and ITEM 3.”

Please note this issue: some teachers prefer that the thesis appear at the beginning of the introduction, which will work with this model as well. Also, some schools do not teach the five-paragraph essay or use a thesis statement, which is fine – students can still use the web as a focus for their thoughts and use the following outline as a backbone for their paper’s development!

Once the students have developed this preliminary thesis statement, they can then develop an outline. Usually, the thesis statement appears at the bottom of the introduction. (Warriner, 1977) Next, Item 1 becomes the subject of the topic sentence for the first group of paragraphs, using the “other items” that are attached to it on the web as supporting information according to how the arrows indicate usage. The process then repeats for Item 2 and Item 3 as they provide the subjects for the topic sentences and supporting issues for subsequent paragraphs using a typical “five-paragraph essay” model.

After the students have their outlines, they can begin filling in facts, details, quotes, statistics, or whatever else they need to support the topic sentences of the paragraphs.

As noted above, as the first draft of the essay begins to take form, students will most likely realize that they need to change some of the wording of the thesis, which is fine. In fact, students should be encouraged to find more apropos wordings than, “This paper will,” or “by examining…” The true function of the preliminary thesis statement is to provide direction during the early going; however, the order of Items and the Hub should be preserved. As the actual essay is developed in the process-writing model, it is expected that the students will tinker with the thesis statement until they have reached the final draft form of the essay, and the final or definitive thesis statement.

How to Find a Thesis

By using simple techniques, you can discover your thesis or ask to Do My Homework For Me: searching for what you enjoy, locating the main idea, and finding what you want to tell your audience.

Essays can have great attestments, phrases, words, but without a strong thesis, they can amount to nothing. The main problem students have with thesis’ is how to create one that will be apparent to the reader and will tie the paper together. Many times one is close to having what one wants to say, but it does not get to the exact point. There are three easy ways to find the thesis one is looking for: searching for what one enjoys most in the topic, locating in research what the main idea is and discovering what one wants to tell the audience the most.

Enjoyment

Essays do not have to be a drudgery — they can be reservoirs of intriguing information. The paper depends on the thesis, therefore one’s interest in the essay will rely on the thesis.

Look though one’s research and understanding of the topic, and try to find what aspect of it that is most pleasing. When one has found at least one feature of the subject that one believes they can enjoy, ask yourself: can I write about this for the entire essay without losing interest? If the essay is long, this is an especially important question.

Main Idea

Ask oneself: “In my investigation of the subject, what is the main idea throughout, what is it that keeps grabbing my attention again and again? There may be several main ideas, but which one appears most consistently? If I could speak one sentence about my paper or my subject, what would it be?”

Talking to friends and colleagues about an essay can help to a great degree. Simply by speaking about the subject, ideas become more clear in one’s mind. Like creative expression, it is not until one has articulated the subject to another that it comes into full view.

Audience

Ask oneself: “What is it that I really want to tell my audience about my topic? What part of my essay or research do I find prompts me to reach out to people and explain? If I could choose one thing to declare about my subject, what would it be?” When one has written an essay, the greatest joy to many is to share it with others. Examine the paper or evidence, and track down what one wants to share most with others.

When one has found what one desires to share with others about the subject, ask oneself: “Will my audience think this topic is appropriate, interesting and relevant?” What one wants to tell others is not always the most important or pertinent to them. One should try to find a balance of what the audience wants and what the audience needs.

Finding a thesis can be the most difficult part of an essay. But with help of some searching techniques, it can manifest much more easily. Noticing what one enjoys about the subject, locating the main idea in one’s understanding of the topic, and finding what one wants to tell the audience can greatly improve one’s chances to create a solid thesis.

 

Undergraduate Thesis Topics

A thesis or dissertation is no longer a project reserved for graduate students. As an undergraduate beginning an intense project, it is important to know what to do.

Just as with any other piece of academic writing, it is important to consider the topic. If it’s too narrow, then there may not be enough research available to fully develop the paper’s argument. It the topic is too broad, then the focus of the paper may be lost in trying to cover too many points.

The same philosophy applies when writing an undergraduate thesis. Such a project is becoming more of an option for programs that want students to demonstrate a knowledge of their major field of study, but cannot be done evaluated through exams or shorter academic papers, such as philosophy or religion.

Narrowing the Field

When choosing a topic, it is important to keep the same guidelines in mind as with any other academic paper. However, a thesis is designed to look at a specific topic very intensely for an extended length of time, such as looking at how A belief impacted B event in C kinds of ways. A thesis is also a very intense project, so it is important for students to be interested and emotionally invested in the project to avoid burnout and to help themselves achieve success.

To start, it is easier to start with a broad topic, such as World War II, and begin researching to find common themes relating to the preliminary topic. After doing some research, reading a book or two, or talking to professors or experts in that field, it is important to narrow down the topic. For example, if a student would like to do a thesis on literature published during World War II, it is still broad enough that it would be difficult to sort through the research available. In this case, a more focused topic would be limited to a specific genre or literary theme during World War II.

Finding the Words

However, a thesis does not have to be strictly factual. For those majoring in more creative fields, such as creative writing, art, or music, it is important to have a firm grasp of what you are going to be doing and the necessary skills needed in order to complete the project. For writers, that means knowing the conventions of different genres. For artists or musicians, it means choosing a medium or style and knowing the skills needed for that medium or style.

Knowing What to Say

After choosing a topic, it is important to be able to present the topic. The first step in writing a thesis is often a topic proposal, in which a student writes a two to three page overview on the topic and plans for research. Before the project can go any further, the proposal must be accepted by a panel or an advisor. If it is not accepted, then the student is asked to do more research to either narrow or expand their topic of choice and create a new proposal before going ahead with the project.

While writing a thesis as an undergraduate student may be a daunting task, the process of creating a body of academic work teaches valuable skills, especially for those who are looking to further their education or go into professions that heavily require writing and researching skills. A thesis is an accomplishment to be proud of and can add another dimension of drive and work ethic to a resume, portfolio, or can jump start conversation during a job interview to begin a career after graduation.

Successful Thesis Writing From the Beginning

Every student worried about writing a senior thesis needs some thesis writing tips or Papers For Sale. These are simple: Refine the topic to a single question, and start writing early.

A senior thesis is a big undertaking, and getting started can quite easily be the hardest part. What the writer must keep in mind, though, is that once she begins she must maintain perspective on the project as a whole. That is to say, once she’s picked her topic and begun to gather her research material, she mustn’t forget that she is eventually going to have to write (comprehensively!) all of her major findings as well as defend within her writing the logic of her research. Two simple ways to achieve this perspective is to refine one’s research down to answering one (however complex) question and to begin writing during the research process.

Narrow Down the Thesis Topic

It’s easy to lose track of oneself midway through an extensive project, to be interrupted every so often by, “Wait, what am I doing? What is it I’m trying to say?” It is at these moments that a very clearly defined thesis topic will keep the writer right on target. An easy way to attain such a clearly defined topic is to phrase it as a question. For example, a topic like “Literature and the French Revolution” sounds very interesting, but it is also very broad, and it could be taken in any number of directions.

Let’s say the writer is more interested in the impact the Revolution had literature and not the other way around; she could phrase the question like, “In what ways did the French Revolution change literature?” This is still very broad and could be refined by making more specifications: In what ways did the French Revolution change literature in France? What effect did the social reconstruction of the French Revolution have on French drama? This last question would do a lot to keep the writer from getting sidetracked and help her focus on the social aspect of the Revolution and its impact on a specific kind of French literature — drama.

This isn’t to say that asking other questions is detrimental to the project — quite the opposite. A good thesis will ask and answer lots of questions, especially if they are posed as countering arguments. Perhaps the writer wants to argue that the social aspects of the Revolution affected French drama more than, say, its violence. In this case she needs to address the question “What effect did the Revolution’s violence have on French drama?” while keeping in mind that this is in relation to the topic question.

Write While Conducting Research

Of course the student who write his work will have her notebook handy to take notes in once she begins to conduct her research, but she should consider using it for more than scratching down quotations. In addition to taking notes out of research material, the notebook can be used to write down any thoughts, questions, predictions, or connections relevant to the project. When a break from the books becomes necessary, these thoughts can be expanded on the computer screen — the writer shouldn’t worry about proper grammar or brilliant turns of phrase but simply write whatever it is she’s thinking. This will help her stay on track and, hopefully, will also keep her excited about the topic. These blurbs she writes will also help her to structure her thesis later on in the process when she sits down to write it formally (she may even be able to draw from these early musings verbatim!). It’s always a good thing to have past material available if and when writer’s block sets in.

In the end, though, the key to writing a thesis is to write. This can be hard — one may feel that she’s not phrasing herself correctly, or she’s not sure if she’s ended up where she planned with her research. The only way out of this fix is to continue writing (after all, there generally are no extensions on turning in a thesis!) — if the phrasing isn’t right, move on and come back to it later, or keep writing it differently until it does sound right, but don’t sit on it for days! If the student has written herself into a corner, she needs to write herself out of it. For this reason getting started early is always a good idea!

Dissertation Writing Methods for Students

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Complex challenges of a reading survey include processes of in-depth information seeking and exercise of critical thinking before research development can actually begin

A dissertation is a research essay; it seeks to respond to a doubt, a problem. In deciding your reading and research strategies you need to ask, where did the problem come from? What is already known about it? What other methods have been tried to solve it? The literature review seeks to indicate that you understand what, in discussion of these questions, has been published.

Literature means everything that has been written in the field of enquiry, the recognized or respected writing on a given subject. Academic reading is in some sense respectable, worthy reading for academic study, and is specialized and technical. The purpose of this reading is to become informed about theories, debates and perspectives in the field of enquiry. It has to precede your research because it assists in formulating ideas that will help you devise your methodology.

A Literature Review Must

  1. be related directly to the argument (known as the thesis) that you are proposing
  2. integrate reading into a summary of what is known and what gaps there may be
  3. identify issues and debates emerging from the literature
  4. formulate questions that necessitate more research

Expressing a theoretical framework often features as a function of writing up the literature review. In a theoretical framework you would include an outline of existing theories which are relevant to your research topic. You could also indicate research projects similar to yours that have been written up.

Beginning the Writing Process

The literature you access will include recently published books and journals accessible through university libraries and bookshops, and older material archived in university libraries and online. This reading is challenging and the task of interpreting it and writing out the sense you make of it can prove daunting. The pitfalls you can stumble into include

  • Reading everything, rather than making critical judgements for selection
  • Reading but not writing
  • Not keeping full bibliographic records

It is helpful to compile a preliminary annotated bibliography summarising each book or journal article you read. Chapters in edited collections of essays may be treated individually – you do not have to discuss the entire book. Take copious notes, paraphrase the author’s argument, select passages to quote, and note the full reference for author, date, publisher and page number as you go.

  1. Summarise – what for your study are the most relevant points made
  2. Critique – evaluate, assess the strengths and weaknesses of content
  3. Interpret how it succeeds or fails to support your hypothesis
  4. Synthesise – reorganise the material and incorporate it into your argument

Organize the reading into sections that present themes or identify trends. Your writing should demonstrate that you are capable of thinking critically and conceptualising about issues raised by previous research. Grouping items into sections helps you indicate comparisons and relationships.

How Should This Material be Organised?

A Literature Review looks like an essay or a chapter in a book. It is a piece of prose offering logical discussion, not a list describing or summarizing one piece of literature after another, so avoid beginning every paragraph with the name of a researcher or title of a book. It must be defined by a guiding concept such as your dissertation research objective, the problem you are discussing, or your hypothesis. Your introductory paragraph should signal:

  • what you are going to cover in the review
  • the scope of your research
  • how the review relates to your research project

Open the introduction with a strong positive statement about your topic. Suggest how many themes your literature report focuses on and name these themes. Follow the introduction with the main body of the essay, properly paragraphed. End with a concluding paragraph relating back to the introduction, and forward to the next chapter probably themethodology.

Reviewing the Final Structure

Your literature chapter presents your research topic as a narrative, so that your readers can understand exactly what the work entails, and it demonstrates to your tutor that you have read appropriately within your field. It tells the reader of your dissertation of the way in which your thoughts have developed and of the limits of your research, and provides them with the background information that they need in order to be able to understand what comes next.

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